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"Advocacy planning"  and  development of the territory of the Konshin factory XVIII-XIV centuries. in Serpukhov

The concept of advocacy planning was introduced by Paul Davidoff, an American planner in the 60s and 70s. This  planners who represented the interests of citizens, non-represented groups. The advocacy planner is located between two poles - on the one hand, the citizens whose interests he represents, and on the other hand, for example, a master plan developed by the city administration. Or a planning project developed by a business representative. Thus, the discussion is on a professional level, and affects the interests of all groups of citizens.

In America, this concept arose 50 years ago, but in our country it is only emerging and activelystudied and promoted "Higher School of Urban Studies named after A.A. Vysokovsky", and there are practically no cases of citizens' participation in the development of territories. This example is all the more important, although it is not at all at the political level, and this is not a dialogue between society and authorities, not the participation of citizens in the formation of a master plan or rules for land use and development, but only the co-participation of a small active community and business in a specific small area, but however, he is an important example of how interaction and dialogue can be built.

Today in Russia "Advocacy planning" within the framework of the dialogue between the community and the developer can be implemented under certain conditions: & nbsp;

1) When the  developer's  's "unintentional" actions, i.e. from ignorance. The advocacy planner in this case assumes the role of a consultant.


But even if the developer is ready for dialogue, this does not mean that the conflict has been settled. The community involved and the developer have different goals. 

In this case, in Serpukhov, it was just that, because the developer did it out of ignorance, after an incorrect marketing analysis showed an overestimated and unattainable potential of the territory in the legal field. Therefore, in order to preserve heritage, it is necessary to inform and provide understandable access to information about cultural heritage and to information about all existing and potential restrictions on the site.

And also, positive precedents for the development of territories with cultural heritage sites are needed so that "architectural monuments" do not scare away the developer.

2) When the community has leverage over the developer

(for example, through the media, administration), and the administration is not in collusion with the developer. 

In this case, the process of demolition of the buildings of the historic factory was stopped thanks to the reporting material about what was happening in the media.

3) When the urban community is active.

The developer is not interested in cooperation until there is a powerful opposing force. Until now, the developer understands the process of illegal demolition of monuments rather than understanding the entire sequence of the process. This takes a lot of time, which is reflected in the cost of renting land.

To correct the situation, it is necessary to inform developers and create an accessible database of positive examples of the development of territories with ICH, popularization of these examples.

In this case, the active community was the All-Russian Society for the Preservation of Monuments and Culture of the Moscow Region (VOOPIiK MO), which, together with the help of the media, stopped the process of destruction.

1. Advocacy planners:  APPARAT architectural and planning company
2. Community defending its interests: VOOPIIK MO (All-Russian Society for the Protection of Historical and Cultural Monuments), residents
3. Developer

About the territory: The territory of the former cotton-printing factory of the Konshins (18-19 centuries) is located 78 km. from the Moscow Ring Road, 7.9 km from the Simferopol highway M-2, in the city of Serpukhov, in the historical center on the banks of the Nara River, next to the Cathedral Hill and the Serpukhov Kremlin.
By road from the Moscow Ring Road to the territory, the journey takes 1 hour 10 minutes.

One of the buildings of the Konshin cotton-printing factory complex:

Historically, industrial zones were concentrated along the Nara River. Most of these enterprises are inactive, and represent degraded territories and wastelands blocking the river from the city. In this regard, and landscaped
the territories along the Nara River are undeveloped, wild and overgrown areas. Such a state of the central part of the historic city is unacceptable. It contradicts the planned tourism development of the city's potential, and also directs the existing development and growth of the city to the outside, that is, it contributes to the "sprawl" of the city, rather than the development of sites inside the city.

Such trends lead to an increase in the cost of urban communications, the unattractiveness of building new microdistricts, in contrast to the quarters of the historical environment, as well as the "friability" of the city center and the absence of a living environment in it.


The existing RPA revises the relevance of so many former industrial areas along the embankment. The new territorial zones are classified as mixed development - housing, recreation, sports, administrative and office development.
The development of one segment of such a territory should entail a chain reaction to other territories of the former industry, since. The plot has an advantageous location in the heart of the historic city, on a hill overlooking the river. And this, in turn, activates the attractiveness of the city center not only for local residents, but also for large tourist flows.

The redevelopment of the territory should be supported by the development of the embankment as a citywide recreational area. The most realistic interaction model for this is a public-private partnership.

The developer began immediately with the demolition of the existing buildings of the Konshin factory. He planned to build 9-storey residential buildings on the territory.

This caused a resonance in the media thanks to the VOOPIIK of the Moscow Region and the former administration of Serpukhov.

The company that did the territory analysis and business plan did not take into account all the restrictions associated with the ICH. As a result, the restrictions became clear only during the demolition of the factory buildings. But the demolition was suspended, and the developer was forced to negotiate withVOOPIICom.

VOOPIIK The Ministry of Defense came forward not only with prohibitive measures, but also with a proposal to advise the developer on how to proceed in this case, while maintaining the OKN and at the same time gaining benefits.  

Development type in the offer from the consulting company without restrictions: 170,000 m2:

Red border - a complex of buildings of the Konshin factory

Black border - the surviving buildings of the Konshins' factory

Red fill - additional area for new development next to the factory

Our company acted as "advocacy planners" and was ready to calculate an alternative development option, to tell the developer about all urban planning restrictions. As it turned out, the developer was not aware that there were restrictions on this abandoned area. Then a dialogue took place, and an alternative plan was developed with a height of 3-4 floors.

Building type in the alternative proposal: 90,000 m2:

The planners of our company proposed to keep the factory and use a different type of building - quarterly, denser and low-rise, and suitable for the historical environment of Serpukhov. Thus, we managed to reduce the height by 3-4 times, and the square meters that the developer was interested in decreased only by 2 times. This suited the builder.

The planners also explained to the developer that the factory buildings are a necessary addition to the residential area as an infrastructure, including tourism, that will attract visitors not only from the residential area, but also from other cities.

It was important to save the factory buildings.


But in order for the developer to be interested in undertaking restoration and reconstruction, it was necessary to give the opportunity to earn money in the neighboring territory. The territory for development is a “transfer of the right to build” - an opportunity to earn money on a free territory in exchange for the restoration of a monument or low-density buildings next to a cultural heritage site.

The problem is that the territory next to the OKN is also a difficult territory, located next to another OKN (The Church of the Kazan Icon of the Mother of God) & nbsp; and in its protected zone. Therefore, fine tuning was needed here, allowing to observe all interests. With the current restrictions in height, the cost of restoration, historical and cultural research, projects of protection zones and archeology, excess profit is unattainable, and maybe even close to zero.

The block type of building in the alternative proposal proved that the decrease in height

does not mean a proportional reduction of living space:

In this case, the dialogue also took place between business and government. After analyzing the PZZ, the planners realized that the developer in this area was indeed placed in very unfavorable conditions, and without the help of the administration, this territory would remain destroyed. In the PZZ, the entire territory is covered by different zones, and most of them are recreational.

Zones in the rules of land use and development:

Lots suitable for housing construction:

There is almost no space for a new development. Justification for the size of such a large recreational area was not found, so it was necessary to make changes. The planners and developers of the protected areas came to a compromise - they launched historical and cultural studies to understand whether such a large recreational area is really needed. As soon as historical and cultural studies showed that recreation could be less, the customer took the next step - developing a project for the protection zones of the Kazan Church and making changes to the PZZ based on it.

The administration was ready to help us with making changes to the PZZ. They themselves organized this process for budgetary money. This is an example of cooperation with the administration at the document level ter. planning.

At the moment, this assistance also consists in the allocation of an additional site for social. infrastructure and in the removal of industrial areas.

These stages have already been paid by the developer, because he saw the potential of the territory, not just the limitations. But it was the most difficult process in which the planners acted as mediators between the developer and the developers of the protection zones. Moreover, the developers of the protection zones were subcontracted to the planners, and not to the developer, in order to relieve pressure from the developer.

historical square

Church of the Kazan Icon of the Mother of God (monument of reg. value):

Throughout the project of buffer zones, neither side was willing to negotiate. The planners in this situation were mediators and were on the neutral side, despite the fact that the payment for the work was from the developer.


The question of developing the object of protection of the Konshin factory also arose sharply. The customer understood that the identified OKNs would require much larger investments for restoration. One of the arguments in favor of preserving the factory buildings was that the protection zones of the Trinity Cathedral imposed restrictions on the territory - the allowed height was 12 meters. And the existing factory buildings have a height of more than 12 meters, that is, it is beneficial to keep them! The new development will not provide as much space as the factory buildings provide now. The developer did not make this mistake only thanks to the planners of our company and VOOPIiK.

Protection zones of the Church of the Kazan Icon of the Mother of God (monument of reg. value):

The project of protection zones revealed the old structure (grid) of streets, which formed the basis of the new development. The new building repeats the historical structure of the former "Goncharnaya Sloboda".

All development will be carried out along the historical red lines.

This became both a marketing ploy for the further PR strategy of the project, and at the same time, a safety net for historians - the complexity of the configuration of historical streets and quarters makes it impossible to build up the territory with typical houses.

Map 1852:

Layout taking into account the historical grid of streets:

But at some moments the interests of the developer were defended, when the planners understood that the decision of the developers of the protection zones entailed dead-end consequences for the further development of the territory. For example, the protection zone of the Kazan Church also includes the lost church. Its inclusion in the protection zone implies the possibility of its restoration. But restoration is always a copy, a fake, and most often of a very poor quality of implementation. The general discussion on this topic led to a compromise - the need to create a chapel or a monument of the lost church in the form of a modern monument was prescribed in the project of the protection zones. This task was also included in the TOR upon approval by the Ministry of Construction, that is, the developer will be obliged to fulfill it.

Analogue, as it is done in some countries:

Monument to the lost church as an art installation, a modern monument (Photo: Filip Dujardin):

Analog4_Photo_by_Filip Dujardin.jpg
Аналог_Photo_by_Filip Dujardin.jpg

The design of the protection zones also took into account the bed of the disappeared river, which was turned into a green pedestrian alley.

This is an example of how the division of the quarter by a public alley, which is still a descent to the water, does not allow the territory to become a "closed quarter".

And this decision requires a dialogue with the administration: users appear near the Nara River, because this is facilitated by a "green corridor" with a descent to the river, and attracts residents and tourists to the embankment.

Pedestrian alley on the site of the riverbed "Mishalka":

Pedestrian alley on the site of the riverbed "Mishalka":

Pedestrian alley

The defenders of the heritage assumed that in the protection zone of the Kazan Church there would be mainly private residential buildings. It's been a long conversation about what a private living environment is best suited for this place, but there aren't strong enough tools to enforce all the prescribed regulations regarding the fence of private property, house materials, etc., if the houses are not will be built by the builder. And he will not build them, because it is not profitable.

Street with private houses, as seen by the heritage advocate:


For such cases, there is a way - the sale of plots with ready-made projects to choose from and with a construction contract. But this is a risk for developers of protection zones and planners, because it is not yet known what the developer will do. As a result, it can turn into building chaos and it will be very difficult to force the owners to comply with aesthetic regulations.

A street with private houses, as it will be in reality:

Author photo_Alexander_Antonov.jpg

Photo: Alexander Antonov

Private residential development is a low density, which means a lack of infrastructure - which means a boring environment for tourists and a sleeping area. This is a closed environment because private property.

Therefore, it will be impossible to involve the city in its assistants in the improvement of the embankment, public spaces outside the building zone.

As a result, they came to a compromise - the construction of small blocked houses, which in size and height correspond to the old Serpukhov building with private houses.

Block houses instead of private ones:

Architecture is a private house for 2 families, with its own small plot and parking space. In this case, the developer becomes interested in building houses and then selling them. And at this stage, when the construction of houses is carried out by one contractor, it is much easier to control the implementation of the general architectural regulations laid down in the design of the protection zones. But there is a danger that the developer will build cloned houses of the same type. And this is a question of the next stages of design.

Here the developer of the protection zones passes the "relay baton" on compliance with all regulations to the architect, who then leads the project.

And since July 2017, a new form of GPZU has entered into law, in which you can prescribe all the characteristics of the future architectural appearance of the object.

Blocked houses instead of private ones (existing analogues of private houses in Serpukhov):


On other streets, low-rise buildings of 3-4 floors were used:

An example of cooperation with the city and the "transfer of building rights".

At the heart of the approach, the developer and planners applied the concept of building right transfer. This concept is based on the owner's ability to receive an additional site from the city administration, where he can place social infrastructure without compromising the number of housing sold, but the construction will be at the expense of the developer.

In this case, the city allocated a separate plot for the construction of a kindergarten.

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"Transfer of construction rights" - allocated additional plots for the construction of a kindergarten:

The next stage in the development of the territory is the organization of a round table, at which a dialogue will take place between the developer, the interested community, local historians, architects and marketers.

At the round table, the agenda of the program will be the discussion of the functional zoning of the territory and the actual filling of the buildings of the former Konshin factory.

- Based on the history, the "genius" of the place, for which the local historian and historians are responsible, a marketing campaign will be developed.

- On the basis of marketing research, the buyer and user of the future tourist and social infrastructure and housing will be determined.

- Based on the analysis of existing world and domestic analogues of the reconstruction of historical factories, an architectural concept will be developed.

Trenina Victoria
Sabirullov Alexey
Sabirullov Evgeny
Sosedov Evgeniy
Verkhovskaya Marina
Gainutdinova Anna
Trubetskaya Irina
Nabasova Olga
Tarasyuk Irina
Gepper Ekaterina
Akulova Tatiana
Troyanovskaya Irina
Stenchev Pavel



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