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Transport modeling and design of tram tracks along Academician Sakharov Avenue, Moscow

In October 2017, by order of Mosgortrans, our company Withtogether with "Research Institute of Transport and Road Facilities" developed a project for a tram line along Akademika Sakharov Avenue from the Chistye Prudy metro turnaround to Kalanchevskaya Street, together with the Research Institute of Transport and Road Facilities.

The complexity of the project was not only to design a new tram line within the boundaries of the existing street and road network, but also to fit the object into the existing historical and cultural appearance of the street.

In the course of work, the Designer took into account the proposals of the project "Complex improvement of Sakharov Avenue from Sretensky Boulevard to the Garden Ring", executed by Strelka Design Bureau. In this project, a section of Akademika Sakharov Avenue between Boulevard and Garden Rings was considered.

The design area is located in the historical part of Moscow, where one can easily trace the "stages" of the city's urban development. The southern boundary of the design (Boulevard Ring: Sretensky Boulevard, Chistoprudny Boulevard) runs on the site where in the 16th century. the former brick fortress wall of the White City towered, the territory from Boulevard to the Garden Ring (Sadovaya-Spasskaya Street), which crosses Academician Sakharov Avenue, is nothing more than Zemlyanoy Gorod, and the territory enclosed between Garden Ring and Kalanchevskaya Street is completely located within 18th century cities.

No less interesting is the history of the development of Academician Sakharov Avenue itself. In the general plan of Moscow in 1935 & nbsp; The future avenue was conceived as a substitute for Myasnitskaya Street, but its construction dragged on from the 1930s to the 1970s, while the section of the avenue from Boulevard Ring to Lubyanskaya Square was not completed. Partly because of this, the avenue was not realized as a significant transport artery. Along the avenue there are cultural heritage sites, offices of large corporations, buildings of departmental institutions and banks. At the intersection of the avenue and the Garden Ring in 2019 & nbsp; the construction of a memorial to the victims of political repressions is planned.

The scale of buildings and streets, as well as the status of the institutions concentrated here, make Akademika Sakharov Avenue one of the most significant spaces in Moscow - there is practically no housing here, but there are many office and administrative buildings occupied by large state associations, departmental institutions and banks.

At the moment, most of the wide sidewalks are occupied by spontaneous and organized parking - during rush hour and the height of the working day, a large number of cars are parked on and along sidewalks and there are practically no people. The street occasionally comes alive during mass events, but on weekdays and weekends it is a dead zone.

The main objectives of the Improvement Project:

-     Improvement of the avenue, which will not only preserve and emphasize the significance of the street, but will also connect buildings of different styles by forming a coherent environment.

-     The project is designed to revitalize the public space and promote its active use by office workers and residents of adjacent neighborhoods, creating a comfortable everyday city life.

The prospective transport scheme of the Improvement Project includes the introduction of tram routes, bicycle paths and surface pedestrian crossings. The emergence of public transport and cycling routes will create alternative modes of travel, helping to reduce the number of private vehicles. At the same time, ground pedestrian crossings will improve the connectivity and accessibility of the street for all categories of citizens.

About method: Data collection and analysis was carried out, including existing routes of surface urban passenger transport and analysis of passenger flows, pedestrian accessibility of passenger transport stops, existing traffic organization and traffic light modes.

Based on the collected data, the route of the line, the route network and infrastructure for its change were developed.

Passenger Flow Estimation: A Static Multimodal Modeling Process.

Pedestrian demand generated by three stations is about 10 thousand people. during morning rush hour.

Pedestrian demand is distributed in proportion to the area of office buildings within 1.5 km. walking approach.

The largest office centers near Komsomolskaya Square are located on Sakharov Avenue.

The estimated reduction in travel time (0…5 min.) was obtained for 1.8 thousand people; at least half of them are potential tram users.

Verification of design solutions took place with the help of micro-modeling in a special program, in which a model of the existing situation was first built, and then a design one.

According to the project, the new tram line connects the tram tracks at the Chistye Prudy metro station with the existing tram line on Kalanchevskaya Street, thus uniting the area of the Three Station Square with Chistoprudny Boulevard. The construction of the new branch line provides route accessibility to Akademika Sakharova Avenue, where there are currently no public transport routes.

Tram traffic will be carried out along the new route from Chistye Prudy metro station to the turn to Akademika Sakharova Avenue, then the route runs along Akademika Sakharov Avenue and Masha Poryvaeva Street to Kalanchevskaya Street.

It is planned to set up four intermediate stopping points with conditional (working) names:

-      Masha Poryvaeva st., 36;

-     Sadovaya-Spasskaya street;

-     Prospect Academician Sakharov, 39;

-     metro station "Chistye Prudy".

It is assumed that tram cars 71-931 "Vityaz" and four-axle tram cars "TATRA-T3" of various modifications will be operated on the projected section.

All project proposals have been developed taking into account accessibility for people with limited mobility.

For the convenience of passengers, the stop platform provides for the installation of a “Small-sized double” waiting pavilion, information navigation light boxes (lightboxes) with various schemes for organizing urban transport, route schedules and maps of the area, navigation pylons, a ticket vending machine (APB) and ballot boxes for garbage.

The construction of the tram line does not introduce significant changes in the layout of the streets, since all design solutions do not go beyond the boundaries of the existing carriageways of the streets. Basically, the existing traffic trajectories have been preserved, only in some places it is planned to add additional left lanes. It is also envisaged that the U-turn will be preserved (from the even side of the street to the odd side) opposite the Domnikov business center (Masha Poryvaeva St., 34). The location of the turnaround is explained by the presence of a multi-level parking in the business center building with a total capacity of 1100 cars and the use of the turnaround by customers of the underground parking lot.

Design proposals were developed in order to maintain the number of parking spaces throughout the design section from Boulevard Ring to Kalanchevskaya Street. The total number of parking spaces located along the edge of the carriageway of Akademika Sakharov Avenue and Masha Poryvaeva Street in accordance with the project is 247 units.

At the first stage, an analysis was made of the need and relevance of the tram line connecting st. Metro "Chistye Prudy" and Komsomolskaya Square. Transport modeling showed that the demand for trams in this direction is very high.  

Transport micromodeling of tram tracks. 

Verification of design solutions took place with the help of micro-modeling in a special program, in which a model of the existing situation was first built, and then a design one.

As an example, videos of micro-modeling of tram tracks at the intersection with the Garden Ring and on Turgenevskaya Square from the Chistye Prudy metro station are presented.

Initial data were collected and analyzed, including the existing routes of the OGPT, the pedestrian accessibility of the stopping points of the OGPT, the existing organization of traffic and the modes of operation of traffic lights.

Existing passenger flows on SVT

Based on the collected data, the route of the line, the route network and infrastructure were developed to change it

Determining the location of stopping points

Route network changes

Passenger Flow Estimation: Static Multimodal Modeling Process

To increase the accuracy of calculations, the territory adjacent to the projected tram line was divided into smaller transport areas

Scheme: 129 transport districts in the considered sector

Scheme: The result of the calculation of the predicted passenger traffic

Simulation mathematical modeling. direct route

Simulation mathematical modeling. Return route

Time savings when moving on an existing OT compared to a walking approach

The total pedestrian demand generated by the three stations, according to a conservative estimate, is about 10 thousand people. during morning rush hour.

Pedestrian demand is distributed in proportion to the area of office buildings within a 1.5-km walking distance

Points of potential implementation of pedestrian correspondence

Reducing travel time

The largest office centers near Komsomolskaya Square are located on Sakharov Avenue.

The estimated reduction in travel time (0...5 min.) was obtained for 1.8 thousand people;

of which at least half are potential users of the tram

For those arriving at three stations, the time of correspondence with Chistye Prudy using the new tram line and metro will be the same. However, one can expect some passengers to switch from the metro to the tram due to subjective circumstances. This demand is about 1.2 thousand people during the morning rush hour.


In the future, with an increase in the stability of the tram, we can expect passengers to switch between Komsomolskaya and Novokuznetskaya (about 0.9 thousand people per rush hour)

The above analysis confirms the conclusions obtained from the results of mathematical modeling.

*The following interchange nodes are being investigated:

- Komsomolskaya - Art. Komsomolskaya Sokolnicheskaya and Koltsevaya lines

- Clean ponds - Art. Chistye Prudy, Turgenevskaya, Sretensky Boulevard

-Novokuznetskaya - st. Novokuznetskaya, Tretyakovskaya

At the second stage, a planning project was developed. & nbsp;

The customer (Mosgortrans) refused to cover the inter-track space with a lawn due to the complexity of maintenance.

Map of historical buildings.

Sakharov Avenue is a relatively new, experimental street. Almost no pre-revolutionary buildings have been preserved here. Styles in architecture are mixed, mostly of the Soviet period. Therefore, we decided not to focus on a specific era and architectural style and make a modern tram infrastructure. This applies mainly to contact supports. 

Tramway structures.
The design involves the placement of power supports in the center of the selected strip.

Layout of a linear object. 

After substantiating the relevance of tram tracks and modeling passenger flows, a layout plan for a linear facility was developed.

Tram line project on Akademika Sakharova Avenue
Moscow, 2017 
Together with the "Research Institute of Transport and Road Economy"
Sabirullov Alexey (project manager)
Trenina Victoria (project manager)
Sabirullov Evgeniy (director of the company)
Peleneva Anna (GAP of the project and author of the text)
Gepper Ekaterina (project engineer)
Danilova Ekaterina (project engineer)
Akulova Tatyana (project engineer)
Nikolai Zalessky (transport modeling)
Artamonova Olga (traffic management schemes)
Sukharev Sergey
Nikolaev Kirill
Kulakov Alexander
Malishevsky Leonid




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